People toss around the word “burnout” a lot these days. Every time I speak about burnout to a group or at a conference, people come up to me wide-eyed afterward, saying, “This is what’s wrong with me! I just thought I was exhausted and stressed.” It’s my experience that many people walk around with clear symptoms of burnout, without realizing that that’s what their problem is.
A Personal Story of Burnout
We know now that physicians are at extremely high risk for burnout: It affects around 50 percent of us at any given time. In the early days of the research, experts thought that burnout exclusively affected people in the helping professions, such as doctors, nurses, and social workers. It’s now established that burnout can creep up on anyone, in any vocation, if they experience a certain combination of difficult circumstances.
Years ago, I was diagnosed with depression during my Emergency Medicine residency. Given that I was experiencing increasing levels of despair and hopelessness, I believe that diagnosis was partially correct. When I look back, though, I can also see that I was also severely burned out. (Researchers Iacovides et al. have pointed out that the two conditions can overlap.) At the time, unfortunately, no one saw or addressed the burnout.
I ended up quitting my residency and switched to a less stressful practice and a more balanced life. I committed to taking proper care of myself and sought positive activities outside of work, such as dancing and writing. My symptoms were dramatically better — shockingly better, actually — within weeks.
Any Job Can Potentially Put You At Risk
When I was suffering from burnout, I wasn’t aware of what was going on. You’d think that 80-hour work weeks and too many night shifts would have been a clue. In a way, I was lucky that my work life — and I — fell apart, as I was able to rebuild both in a healthier, comparatively burnout-proof framework.
Are You Just Stressed or is it Burnout?
So how do you know whether the challenges you are experiencing are simply everyday work stress or the signs of burnout?
For a diagnosis of burnout, these three components need to be present:
1. Emotional exhaustion.
You feel tired all the time. You don’t feel up to facing your workday, even if it’s just a normal day. Every morning you wake with a feeling of dread. Day after day you feel this. It doesn’t lift, even after a week off. You’re dealing with heavy workloads or difficult workplace circumstances that are wearing you out.
You may have started out as someone who really enjoyed working with people or dealing with clients. Now, you find yourself feeling increasingly angry and irritable toward them. You feel more and more detached from your work and worry about how cynical you’ve become.
Once, I was speaking to an association of specialist physicians on this topic. There was a rather unfriendly gentleman who sat way at the back (in fact, he warned me, before I went up to give my speech, that he didn’t want to be there and would probably leave partway through).
Imagine my shock when the very same doctor called me the next day from the airport on his way back home. He told me that while listening to me, he realized that he was suffering from severe burnout. It stunned him. He said:
“My family has been complaining to me for years that I’ve become this angry, cynical person. I felt terrible about it and didn’t know what to do, so I just got more cynical. Now, I understand that I’m burned out. I need to get help to make some changes. Thank you.”
So many people out there suffer in a similar way, unaware of the root cause of these personality changes. (Obviously there can be other causes of personality change and chronic bad moods; given his profession, though, burnout surely played a role.)
3. Reduced personal efficacy.
You’re losing confidence in your ability to do your job, even though you used to be quite good at it. You work harder and harder, but seem to accomplish less. Your productivity has dropped significantly, and your belief in yourself has fallen along with it.
Get Help Sooner Than Later
As mentioned above, you need to be experiencing all three of these components to be suffering from full-fledged burnout. Even if you are just experiencing one or two, pay attention. As leading burnout researchers Christina Maslach and Michael Leiter describe in an article on the subject, you may initially experience just one of the above profiles, as you head down the road from healthy work engagement to full-fledged burnout.
For another article related to this topic, check out: Stressed Out? You May be Too Conscientious (conscientiousness is a risk factor for burnout)
Important note: If you relate to any of the above points or are struggling in your work (or your life), seek the advice of your doctor or a qualified mental health professional. I wrote this post to provide useful information on the topic; please don’t diagnose and treat yourself — leave that to the professionals.